Social History for Every Classroom


Social History for Every Classroom

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Seneca Chiefs Address George Washington (1790)

In 1790, Cornplanter, the chief of the Seneca nation, and two other chiefs sought redress from the supreme executive council of Pennsylvania for wrongs committed against the Seneca people by British colonists. The cheifs directly addressed [...]

Tags: land
Item Type: Speech
Mass Extermination of Buffalo (1892)

This image, taken in Rougeville, Michigan, depicts one man standing on top of thousands of buffalo skills, with another standing in front of the pile with his foot on one skull. White settlers exterminated buffalo near the end of the 19th century [...]

Devastation After the Church Rock Uranium Mill Spill (1983)

After World War II, uranium mined in New Mexico was used to fuel nuclear weapons and power plants. The process was toxic for employees who worked with the radioactive materials and the mines also posed risks for nearby communities. In 1979, the dam [...]

Congressional Hearing on Church Rock Dam Break (1979)

On October 22, 1979, Congress members listened to testimony about the difficulties faced by Navajos living on the land that was contaminated by the Church Rock Uranium mine spill. The Church Rock mine was the country's largest underground uranium [...]

Diane Burns Sheds Light on Gentrification (1988)

Artist and poet Diane Burns was born in Lawrence, Kansas in 1957: her father was Chemehuevi and her mother was Anishinabe. In the 1970s she moved to New York City where she created art that challenged stereotypes of Native Americans and addressed [...]

Zitkála-Šá Remembers Her Mother's Curse (1921)

Zitkála-Šá was born on the Yankton Reservation in South Dakota in 1876. When she was 8, she left her Dakota community to attend a Quaker missionary-run boarding school in Indiana. She also attended Earlham College, a Quaker school in Indiana, and [...]

An Indigenous Student Argues for Assimilation (1902)

In 1887, Congress enacted the Dawes Act, referred to as the Dawes Severalty Act or General Allotment Act. It empowered the federal government to redistribute tribal lands: rather than being communally owned by tribes, land would be owned and farmed [...]

Indigenous Activists Claim Alcatraz Island (1969)

On November 20, 1969, eighty-nine Native Americans, led by activist Richard Oakes, seized control of Alcatraz. From 1934 until 1963 this small island in San Francisco Bay had been home to the federal prison Alcatraz. Nicknamed "The Rock," the [...]

Item Type: Diary/Letter
The American Indian Movement Organizes the Trail of Broken Treaties (1972)

In 1972, AIM (American Indian Movement) activists organized the Trail of Broken Treaties and Pan American Native Quest for Justice. In a symbolic reversal of the 19th century Trail of Tears, activists drove from California, Washington, and Oklahoma [...]

The FBI Targets the American Indian Movement (1972)

Shortly before the 1972 presidential elections, members of the American Indian Movement (AIM) took over the Washington, D.C. offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The occupation came at the end of the Trail of Broken Treaties, a months’ long [...]

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