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Anti-Chinese Prejudice and the "Six Companies" (with text supports)

The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association of San Francisco (commonly known as "the Six Companies") was an organization of regional- and family-based self-help societies in Chinatown. They helped to get new immigrants housing, food, and jobs. In 1876, its leaders petitioned President Ulysses S. Grant and challenged the growing political movement to limit Chinese immigration. In the first excerpt below, from the petition, the Six Companies also tried to speak out against stereotypes about their own activities. The second excerpt, from an 1898 book, shows the kinds of stereotypes people had about Chinatown.

Source | Rev. O. Gibson, The Chinese in America (Cincinnati: Hitchcock & Walden, 1877), 315-323. George Warrington Steevens, The Land of the Dollar (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1898), 247.
Creator | Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association
Item Type | Pamphlet/Petition
Cite This document | Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, “Anti-Chinese Prejudice and the "Six Companies" (with text supports),” SHEC: Resources for Teachers, accessed September 26, 2023,

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