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Graph of Immigration and Business Conditions, 1880-1910

This chart compares the growth of the U.S. industrial economy with the arrival of immigrants. Coal was important to the growth of the economy because coal-powered factories produced other important industrial goods like steel (and steel output of grew by 700% in the same period). “Bank clearings” refers to bank transactions, and railway freight refers to how many tons of goods were transported by train. Economists from that time period viewed high bank clearings and high freight tonnage as evidence of a healthy economy.

Source | Isaac Aaronovitch Hourwich, Immigration and Labor: The Economic Aspects of European Immigration to the United States (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1912), 87.
Creator | Isaac Aaronovitch Hourwich
Item Type | Quantitative Data
Cite This document | Isaac Aaronovitch Hourwich, “Graph of Immigration and Business Conditions, 1880-1910,” SHEC: Resources for Teachers, accessed March 20, 2023,

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